Did you know that one of the most important architectural complexes in the world is the Moscow Kremlin?
It is a monument of historical and cultural value that includes 4 palaces and 4 cathedrals that are inside the fortress that surrounds the citadel. Know its history and the wonders that make it up.
The Moscow Kremlin: Almost nine centuries of superb architecture
The Kremlin It is located in the city of Moscow. It limits to the south with the Moscova river, to the east with the Red Square and to the west with the Garden of Alexander. It is surrounded by a gigantic wall of red bricks of 2235 meters in length and whose dimension covers more than 28 hectares.
One of the extraordinary aspects of this complex is its wooden constructions known from 1156 as "The Moscow Fortress".
Between 1326-1327 on the highest summit of the hill was erected the Cathedral of Asunción and it is said that it was the first stone construction in the whole. More ahead, especially in the period that goes between 1366-1368 the stone strength was built, under the reign of the Great Prince Dmitry Donskoy.
Subsequently, under the mandate of Ivan III, first governor named "Grand Prince of All Russia", the total construction of the Kremlin in stone. This work was entrusted not only to Russian architects but also to foreigners, mainly from Italy.
Between 1475 and 1479 the Italian architects Aristotel Fioravanti and Aloisio Novy participated in the intervention of the Kremlin. The first of them promoted the reconstruction of the old Cathedral of Asunción and in front of this, the second, that is to say Novy, erected the Cathedral of Michelangelo (Arkhangelsky Cathedral).
Between the 1485-1495 years the Italian masters erected the new walls, crenellated and with towers. On the other hand, during the 1505-1508 period the architect Bon Fryazin built the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, so the whole of the Sobornaya square was crowned with this architectural jewel.
In the mid-sixteenth century Prince Ivan (known as the Terrible) officially accepted the title of tsar and since then The Kremlin was considered the residence of Russian tsars.
Finally, between 1555-1561 the complex was completed by erecting outside the walls of the Kremlin the Cathedral of Amparo de la Virgen to commemorate the conquest of Kazan by Tsar Ivan IV.
A monument that has resisted the ravages of time and war
The Kremlin It has suffered hard blows due to the wars and as a result of this many of its buildings have collapsed.
One of the most significant damages committed against this important patrimony was the one that occurred with the invasion of Poles between 1605-1612. On that occasion the cathedrals were sacked and desecrated, as well as the Tsar's treasure and the wooden constructions.
Another devastating event was the terrible fire that opened the new history page of the Kremlin. During the same valuable buildings were lost that were sent to replace by the tsar Peter the Great, but it was the Empress Ana Loanovna who in 1736 concluded this work.
Most of the fortifications and buildings that have been kept standing through time also preserve as valuable objects inside incredible art pieces, as well as paintings and murals with religious motifs that are impressive.
The Moscow Kremlin. Heritage data that reveal its magnificence
In the future of humanity, The Kremlin It was the home of tsars and princes. That's why in one of its most famous buildings, The Armory, riches of the tsars are kept: jewels, crowns, thrones, carriages, among other items of aristocratic opulence.
In the center of the Kremlin are the Cathedrals of the Assumption, the Archangel San Miguel and the Annunciation They represent an icon for Russia not only because of its elegant architectural construction but because it is part of Russian history.
A clear example of the importance of this monument for Russia is represented by the war against the Swedes because the walls of the Kremlin were the place chosen for the construction of bastions and moats during the seventeenth century.
Another valuable historical element of this heritage is kept inside the Cathedral of the Assumption, it is the tomb of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584), this being also the church where the czars were crowned.
In 1990 all Russia was awarded when The Kremlin was recognized by UNESCO as a Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
Its monumental and patrimonial importance make it A must for all who go to Moscow, especially since 1991 when the State Museum of History and Culture of the Kremlin was inaugurated.