In the 1990s, the world was surprised by the dissolution of the Soviet Union, one of the superpowers that had emerged from World War II and that had divided the world into two poles.
Although the problems, especially economic ones, had already been appearing since the decade of the 80, few expected such a rapid collapse of this powerful Confederate State that possessed the most powerful weapons in the world.
The Soviet Union had its origin in the Bolshevik Revolution that ended Tsarist Russia, that is, at the time when Russia was an empire and was ruled by a tsar.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union: A film theme
Between the 11 of March of 1990 and the 25 of December of 1991 the fifteen Republics that formed the largest State in the world declared their independence.
It is a fact about which many films, series and documentaries have been made where they expose the causes that led to the collapse of the heroic iron curtain.
One of the latest television series on some events that surrounded the collapse of the Soviet Union is Chernobyl, a production of HBO.
The causes of the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Even when there have been criticisms about the economic and political management that the Soviet leaders made, errors that eventually caused the fall of this contemporary power, it is fair to recognize that during its validity the strong nationalistic sense of the peoples that They made up this union.
Although the Chernobyl series revolves around the events that caused the explosion of a nuclear reactor in the Chernobyl region, it refers to some events that influenced the disappearance of the USSR.
Specifically, in the final minutes of the series it is claimed that Mikhail Gorbachev attributed much of the blame for the dismemberment of the Soviet Union to this serious nuclear disaster.
Where did the USSR come from?
The Union of the Soviet Republics of Russia, USSR or Bolshevik Russia, as it was also called, was founded in 1922 when the civil war that broke out after Lenin in 1917 overthrew the provisional Bolshevik government.
During the time he ruled Stalin The power of the Soviet Union became known in the world because it initiated an ambitious industrial development project, which included the construction of 30 power plants and giant 10 hydroelectric plants.
It was a military and technological superpower
Industrialization intensified during the Stalin government, which succeeded Lenin's, and paradoxically, although there was a famine, the Soviet Union reached a vast industrial development.
Although there were many casualties (almost 30 millions of Soviets died during World War II) the USSR had a fairly active participation in the defeat suffered by Nazi Germany and Japan.
Thanks to this heroic resistance, the USSR became a military superpower.
From the end of World War II until the beginning of the decade of the 90 the Soviet Union strengthened its influence in the world, being considered as the rival power of the United States in the military and technological areas.
The USSR first started the United States the space race, launching the Sputnik I satellite and the Russian Yuri Gagarin He was the first human being to be placed in Earth's orbit in 1961.
Economic and political problems arose
After an era where the economy was driven by the measures taken by Leonid Brezhnev, who led the Soviet Union until 1983, a new economic crisis would ensue
Soviet agriculture once again became unproductive because it was unable to supply the entire population, so many foods had to be imported and this ultimately resulted in a negative balance of payments.
Perestroika caused the dissolution of the Soviet Union
With the purpose of ending the acute economic crisis the last president of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev initiated a deep economic reform called Perestroika, although these reforms also influenced the political bases.
One of these political reforms was to allow the republic to separate from the union if more than two thirds of its residents voted in favor during a referendum.
For 1990 there were already several republics that carried out economic and political activities without the central control of the USSR.
In 1991 the majority of citizens in eight of the 15 republics voted in favor of the permanence of the Soviet Union, but applying some flexibility.
The end of the Soviet era and the cold war
In August of 1991 extremist forces attempt a coup against Gorbachev, who fail but the Soviet government was greatly weakened. In fact, after this the republics of Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia decided to become independent.
Given the pressure of internal forces in the remaining 12 republics, the December 8 of 1991, the presidents of the Socialist Republics of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus sign the dissolution treaty, establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Finally, the 25 of December of 1991 with the resignation of Gorbachev to the presidency is declared the definitive dissolution of the Soviet Union, and with it the end of one of the largest States that has existed in the history of mankind.
The legacy of the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union acquired an immense reputation as a heroic and self-sacrificing people when, under marked conditions of inferiority, it resisted the onslaught of Nazi Germany during World War II.
One of the historical evidences where the courage and courage of the USSR was demonstrated was the Battle of Stalingrad. Millions of Soviets died in it, but even so the German army could not pierce the iron curtain and that was decisive for the Third Reich to finally be crushed.