Map of Russia
History map of Russia It is like that of the noble people who occupy the current territory represented on the map: An amalgam of events has been built and the result is a wonderful and unfinished product where part of world history is portrayed.
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Speaking of map of Russia necessarily implies approaching the history of the conformation of its territorial political division as a country.
The geographical space that today occupies this nation was changing over time, because, at different historical moments who directed it assumed an expansionist policy that led them to conquer or lose territorios that were transforming the map.
The map of Russia is the product of the expansion of an empire
Some sources say that the origin of what today is the Federación de Rusia It dates from the tenth century and was initially known as the State of Kiev.
However, the expansionist strategy that was imposed in its State policy led it to grow territorially until it became "... the largest continental empire in history."
An event that took place in the midst of the crisis of the Mongol Empire of the Golden Horde set the basis for the reinforcement of the Moscow or Muscovy principality, a small nucleus of the future Russia, already in the 15th century.
Historical references assure that Iván III (1462-1505) was the legitimate founder of the Russian State, who also liberated his principality from the Mongol and Tartaric Vagueness.
Ivan III extended the Russian territory to Rostov, Yaroslavl and Novgorod, expanding in the East to the Kama basin and the Ob course, in the North to the Arctic Ocean and in the West to the Lithuanian border.
Following the victorious campaign against Tartars and Mongols, Ivan III expanded his empire to the Urals, with the conquest of Kazan and up to the Caspian Sea with the capture of Astrajan (1556).
His triumphs allowed him to gain prestige, ascendancy and leadership, as well as gain privileges, to the point that he was proclaimed Protector of Eastern Orthodox Christians against Mongolian and Muslim peoples and dominated the primitive nomadic tribes.
He did not have the same luck in his expansion projects to the Baltic Sea, because there he had to face the double attack of Sweden and Poland.
As they were times of bloody wars and of struggle for power and conquest of natural spaces and riches, the clashes did not cease.
The Strogonovs, cataloged as businessmen, invaded the territorios Asians from the other side of the Urals and began the exploitation of the mining and forest riches of that region.
On the other hand, and further north, the Cossack Ermak or Yermak advanced towards Siberia with his army of soldiers and peasants who wanted to escape from their servitude. With the death of Ermak, his successors incorporated the city of Tobolsk into the territory and founded it in 1587.
Many of the territories that enlarged the map of Russia emerged from the Ottoman Empire
Robert Stewart, in his book "Ideas that transformed the world" points out that "The great era of imperial construction was the eighteenth century", since Peter the great and Catherine the great (the Tsar and the Zarina) imposed Russian rule in the Eastern Baltic and in wars with Turkey stripped of large territorios south to the dying Ottoman empire.
This adventure of conquest and expansion was reestablished from the second half of the 19th century, at which time the Russian power completely ended with the independence of the Caucasus and deployed in Central Asia and its operation was so fast that 1865 had already extended to the Pacific and reached the borders of China and Afghanistan.
The creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) gave rise to a new map
In 1917 a proletarian revolution takes place with Marxism as an ideological and political guide, defeat of Tsarism and proclaim a socialist state that creates the USSR.
From 1945 it emerged victorious against the German invasion of Hitler fascism and freed a group of Eastern European countries from that same enemy, maintaining a decisive influence on them for more than 60 years until the fall of the Berlin Wall at 1989.
Being Russia an integral part of the USSR It had a geographical area of 22.402.200 km2, including inland waters.
Its political-territorial division was made up of 15 Republics occupying the north of Asia and the east of Europe and with a greater extension of the world, almost the double of the territorial extension of the United States, representing one eighth of the inhabited surface of the Earth.
From 1991 it is understood by Russia the Republic adjoining to the west with Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belarus; to the southwest with Ukraine and to the south with Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and North Korea. It borders on the north with the Arctic glacial ocean, on the east with the Pacific Ocean, on the south with the Black Sea and on the Caspian Sea and to the West with the Baltic Sea.
The map of Russia today after the extinction of the USSR
Russia is separated from the American continent by the Bering Strait and almost all the Federación de Rusia it is located closer to the North Pole than to the Equator.
- From north to south, it has approximately 4500 km and includes "from the northern end of the Arctic islands of Francisco José Land to the southern extreme of the Republic of Dagestan in the Caspian Sea".
- From west to east, it has a distance of more than 9200 km and extends from Kaliningrad to the Ratmanov island in the Bering Strait.
Geographic, political-administrative and international border studies show that the frontier of the Federación de Rusia It is the largest in the world. Russia has borders with fourteen countries, eight of which did not exist as a nation until the beginning of the 1990 decade.
In its northeastern end, eighty-six kilometers from the Bering Strait separate continental Russia from its 15th neighbor, the United States and more specifically 3,8 kilometers separate the two countries between the island Diocese Major (Russia) of Diocese of Minor (USA). .). It also shares limits with Republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
Today, Russia continues to occupy an important part of the continents of Europe and Asia. Its surface is 17.098.242km2, of which 16.377.742km2 are of earth and 720.500km2 of water.
Their territorial borders occupy 20.241km, distributed as follows:
- 196 km with Noriega
- 1340 km with Finland
- 294 km with Estonia
- 217 km with Latvia
- 280,5 km with Lithuania
- 232 km with Poland
- 959 km with Belarus
- 1576 km with Ukraine
- 245 km with Abkhazia
- 365 km with Georgia
- 3645 km with China
- 6846 km with Kazakhstan
- 284 km with Azerbaijan
- 74 km with South Ossetia
- 3485 km with Mongolia and
- 19 km with North Korea.
The current political-administrative organization in "Federal Districts" forms the basis of the traditional geographical division of the country, which has been divided into the following regions:
- Russia or European Russia, the European part to the Ural mountains. This in turn comprises four subregions:
- Central region (approximately 650.000 km²), Russia's main industrial region, is located around Moscow.
- The "black lands", (approximately 600.090 km²), southern part with respect to the Republics of the Caucasus or Ciscaucasia.
- Leningrad region (approximately 1.600.000 km²), northwest part, area of the provinces that open to the Baltic and Kara sea.
- Countries of the Volga (approximately 1.000.000 km²), located in the southwestern part
- The Urals, the region of the Ural mountains.
- Western Siberia (2 427 000 km²), plain 2000 km wide, lowland.
- Central Siberia (4 122 000 km²)
- Eastern Siberia or the Russian Far East (more than 6 million km²)
- The Artic